Athens vs Sparta – Difference and Comparison

What is Athens?

One of the most significant city-states in ancient Greece was Athens. Although it was not the largest or the wealthiest, it was the leading cultural center of its time. The city was home to some of the ancient world’s most famous philosophers, artists, and writers.

The city of Athens was built on a hill in the southeastern part of Greece. The people of Athens were divided into four social classes: the aristocrats, the merchants, the farmers, and the slaves.

Athens was ruled by a group of aristocrats known as the Council of Elders. The Athenians were a peaceful people and avoided war whenever possible. They believed that war was a waste of resources and human life.

The Athenians were known for their art, literature, and philosophy. They believed that art should be beautiful and that literature should be truthful. Many of the most famous works of Ancient Greek art and literature were created in Athens.

The Athenians were also known for their love of learning. They founded the first university in the world, the Academy of Plato. The Athenians believed that knowledge was power and were always looking for new ways to learn.

What is Sparta?

Sparta is a city in Greece that was well known for its military prowess. The city was able to maintain its military power due to the fact that it had a highly effective government system that encouraged its citizens to be military-minded.

One of the key aspects of the Spartan government was the agoge, which was a system of education that focused on creating soldiers that were physically and mentally tough. While the agoge was an important part of Spartan society, it was not the only thing that made Sparta a powerful city. The city of Sparta was also incredibly efficient at producing food, which allowed it to support a large population of soldiers.

Sparta had a strong economy that was based on trade and agriculture. This economic stability allowed the city to fund its military campaigns and maintain its position as a powerful city-state in Greece. Sparta’s military power allowed it to become one of the leading city-states in Greece.

Sparta was a city that was defined by its military power. It had no art or architecture.

Difference Between Athens and Sparta

  1. Athens was a democracy while Sparta had an oligarchy.
  2. Athens was known for its art and culture while Sparta was known for its military.
  3. Athens had a large population while Sparta had a small population.
  4. Athens was located in a fertile area while Sparta was located in a barren area.
  5. Athens had a navy while Sparta had an army.
  6. Athens had many slaves while Sparta had few slaves.
  7. Athens was open to new ideas while Sparta was conservative.
  8. Athens was economically prosperous while Sparta was economically poor.
  9. Athens was a cosmopolitan city while Sparta was a rural city.
  10. The citizens of Athens were free while the citizens of Sparta were not.

Comparison Between Athens and Sparta

Parameter of ComparisonAthensSparta
GovernmentDemocracy GovernmentOligarchy
ReligionHad many Gods and GoddessesHad only one God, Zeus
EducationHad many schools and philosophers  Had only military training
EconomyHad thriving economyThe economy was solely based on agriculture and trade
Art, Architecture, and LiteratureHad lots of Art, famous buildings, and writersNo art, architecture, literature


  1. The Origins of Citizenship in Ancient Athens (
  2. ATHENS and SPARTA | Constructing Greek Political and Social History fr (