Sociology vs Anthropology – Difference and Comparison

What is Sociology?

The study of human social interaction, behavior, and organization is known as sociology. It looks at the manner in which people shape society, and society, in turn, shapes people. Sociologists use various methods, such as surveys, experiments, and participant observation, to study social phenomena. They may focus on a wide range of topics, including crime, education, family, race and ethnicity, and economic systems.

One of the key perspectives in sociology is the functionalist perspective, which argues that all parts of society serve a function and contribute to society’s overall stability and functioning. From this perspective, social institutions such as the family, education, and government are seen as necessary for the preservation of society. Another perspective is the conflict perspective, which argues that society is composed of different groups with competing interests.

Sociologists work in academia, research, and government organizations. In academia, sociologists teach and conduct research on a variety of topics. In research, sociologists may work for private research firms or government agencies and provide data and analysis to inform policies and programs. In government, sociologists may work in roles such as policy analysts or program evaluators.

What is Anthropology?                                                                             

Anthropology is the study of human cultures, societies, and development. It encompasses cultural anthropology, which focuses on the study of contemporary human societies and cultures, and physical anthropology, which focuses on studying human physical characteristics and evolution. Anthropologists use ethnography, archaeology, and linguistics methods to study human societies and cultures.

One of the key perspectives in anthropology is the cultural relativism perspective, which argues that cultures should be understood and evaluated on their own terms rather than judged by another culture’s standards. Another perspective is the evolution perspective, which argues that human societies have changed and developed over time and that these changes can be explained by evolutionary processes.

A third perspective is a structural perspective, which focuses on the way that different parts of society are interconnected and how they shape each other. Anthropologists work in academia, research, and government organizations. They focus on topics such as religion, kinship, gender, politics, and economic systems. They work in fields such as business, international development, and museum curation.

Difference Between Sociology and Anthropology

  1. Sociology focuses on the study of modern societies and social behavior, whereas anthropology focuses on the study of human cultures, societies, and development.
  2. Sociology tends to have a more quantitative approach to research, whereas anthropology tends to have a more qualitative approach.
  3. Sociology is more focused on the study of domestic societies, whereas anthropology is more focused on the study of foreign cultures.
  4. Sociology tends to have a more macro-level focus, whereas anthropology tends to have a more micro-level focus.
  5. Sociology focuses mainly on the cultural aspect, whereas anthropology covers both cultural and physical aspects of human societies and cultures.

Comparison Between Sociology and Anthropology

Parameters of ComparisonSociologyAnthropology
FocusStudy of Modern SocietiesStudy of Human Cultures, Societies, and Development
SpecializationDomestic SocietiesForeign Cultures
Preferred AspectCulturalCultural & Physical