RAM, ROM vs EEPROM – Difference and Comparison

What is RAM?

RAM is a key component in any computer. It stands for Random Access Memory, and it is what the computer uses to store information that is currently being used.

For example, when working on a document in Microsoft Word, the document’s contents are stored in RAM.

If you save the document, the contents will be written to your hard drive, but if you close the document without saving it, the contents will be erased from RAM.

RAM is also used to store your operating system’s and your applications’ data.

When your computer starts up, the operating system and all your applications are loaded into RAM, allowing them to start up quickly. When you close an application, its contents are removed from RAM.

The amount of RAM your computer has affects how quickly it can perform these tasks. If you don’t have enough RAM, your computer will have to swap data back and forth between RAM and your hard drive, which can dramatically reduce performance.

For this reason, it’s important to ensure that your computer has enough RAM for the tasks you will be using it for.

What is ROM?

ROM, or read-only memory, is a type of computer storage that retains data even when the power is turned off.

This makes it ideal for storing programs and other essential files, as it prevents them from being lost or corrupted.

Most computers include a small amount of ROM, used to store the basic instructions to start the system.

In addition, many devices such as smartphones and tablets include a “firmware” file stored in ROM. This file contains the operating system and other essential software for the device and cannot be changed or deleted without special tools.

ROM is a non-volatile memory, meaning it does not lose its contents when the power is turned off. For this reason, it is used to store important information such as device settings and other configuration data.

ROM cannot be changed without specialized tools, so it is ideal for storing files that should remain unchanged.

 In addition, since the data stored in ROM cannot be altered or erased by users or malware, it provides an extra layer of security for important files.

ROM can also be used to store programs; this type of storage is referred to as “firmware.” Firmware is permanent software that controls hardware components, such as microprocessors and graphics cards.

It helps devices run smoothly and efficiently by providing instructions on how to operate the hardware. For example, when you turn on a computer, the firmware will instruct the processor to boot up and load the operating system from storage.

Without this essential software, devices would not be able to function properly.

ROM is integral to modern computing, providing a secure way to store important data and programs.

By retaining its contents even when power is lost, ROM ensures that essential information can always be accessed quickly and reliably – no matter what happens.

What is EEROM?

EEPROM, or Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory, is a special type of memory that can be written to and read from, unlike regular read-only memory.

This makes it perfect for storing data that needs to be modified frequently, such as BIOS settings or user preferences.

EEPROM is built into many computers and stores the BIOS configuration. This configuration contains information about the hardware in the computer, such as the amount of memory installed and the type of CPU.

It also stores settings controlling the computer’s operation, such as the boot order and time zone.

Most modern computers also use EEPROM to store user settings. These settings might include the desktop background, window colors, and keyboard shortcuts.

They can also include personal information, such as the user’s name and email address.

EEPROM is a very useful technology but can also be a security risk.

If an attacker can gain access to the EEPROM, it can change or delete any data it stores. For this reason, it is important to keep your computer’s EEPROM protected from unauthorized access.

Differences Between RAM, ROM, and EEPROM

  1. RAM is a type of volatile memory, which means that it loses its data when it is powered off; ROM and EEPROM are types of non-volatile memory, which means that they retain their data even when they are not powered on.
  2. RAM is faster than ROM or EEPROM; ROM and EEPROM are both slower than RAM.
  3. RAM is smaller than ROM or EEPROM; ROM and EEPROM are both larger than RAM.
  4. RAM can be written to and read from multiple times, while ROM can only be written to once and read from once; EEPROM can be written to and read from multiple times, but the number of times it can be written to is limited.
  5. RAM is more expensive than ROM or EEPROM; ROM and EEPROM are both less expensive than RAM.
  6. The amount of data that can be stored in RAM is limited by the amount of physical space available in the chip; the amount of physical space available in the chip does not limit the amount of data that can be stored in ROM or EEPROM.

Comparison Between RAM, ROM, and EEPROM

MeaningStands for Random Access MemoryStands for Read-Only MemoryStands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory
VolatilityRAM is volatile as it is automatically erased when the computer shutdownROM is non-volatile since it’s never erased when the computer is shut down or restarted.EEPROM is also non-volatile since it’s never erased.
CostRAM is more expensive than ROM or EEPROMROM is less expensive than both RAM and EEPROMMore expensive than ROM but less expensive than RAM
FlexibilityRAM can be written to and read from multiple timesROM can only be written to once and read onceEEPROM can be written to and read from multiple times, but the number of times it can be written to is limited.  


  1. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/628842/
  2. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/748803/
  3. https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/1485793/