Archaea vs Eubacteria – Difference and Comparison

What is Archaea?

Archaea refers to a species of organisms that have only a single cell. These microbes are classified as prokaryotes because they lack cell nuclei. They were initially characterized as bacteria. However, the features of archaeal cells set them apart from bacteria and eukaryote.

Although some archaea have quite diverse forms such as the flat, square cells of Haloquadratum walsbyi, in general, bacteria and archaea are comparable in size and shape.

Despite sharing a similar morphology with bacteria, archaea have genes and some metabolic pathways that are more comparable to those of eukaryotes, particularly for the transcription and translational enzymes.

Other distinctive features of archaeal biochemistry include their reliance on ether lipids for the formation of their cell membranes.

Archaea are an important part of life. They are a component of every organism’s microbiome. They play a crucial role in the stomach, mouth, and skin in the human microbiome.

According to some classification schemes for all life, archaea are one of the three major domains of living things. Archaea, or microbes, set the rules for life on Earth. They were discovered and described in extreme environments such as hydrothermal vents and terrestrial hot springs. They were also discovered in a wide range of extremely saline, acidic, and anaerobic environments.

What is Eubacteria?

Eubacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms that consist of a single cell without a nucleus and a single circular chromosome containing DNA. Eubacteria play important roles in commerce, agriculture, and medicine. Lactobacilli and Azospirillum are two examples.

Their name translates literally as “true bacteria.” They include all bacteria (except for archaebacteria). It is the largest domain with the most diverse organisms.

In general, eukaryotic cells are more complex than simple prokaryotic cells. Because they are so small and invisible to the naked eye, microscopes are used to examine and analyze their morphology.

They reproduce via a process known as binary fission. Binary fission is the division of a parent cell into two daughter cells as a result of genetic information duplication.

Some bacteria can produce spores in adverse conditions such as nutritional deprivation, chemical exposure, or radiation.

Despite their inability to reproduce, these spores are extremely resistant to poisons, radiation, heat, and dryness.

Bacterial spores must be removed during sterilization procedures because spore-forming bacteria such as Bacillus and Clostridium are considered dangerous microorganisms. Bacterial spores begin to vegetate and multiply once the environment is once again favorable.

Difference Between Archaea and Eubacteria

  1. Eubacteria have longer genomes than Archaea. The genomic sequences of Archaea are shorter than those of Eubacteria.
  2. Cell walls are made of peptoglycen in Eubactaria. Archaea’s cell walls are made of different matter.
  3. Eubacteria’s cell membrane is composed of a lipid bilayer. Archaea’s cell membrane is a lipid monolayer made of Glycerol Dialkyl Glycerol Tetraether.
  4. Archaea are frequently found in harsh conditions such as hot springs. Eubacteria can be found in most living creatures and in non-extreme environments.
  5. Eubacteria produces more standard energy. Archaea produces less standard energy.

Comparison Table Between Eubacteria and Archaea

Parameters of ComparisonEubacteriaArchaea
GenomesPossess longer genomes than archaeaPossess shorter genome sequences than Eubacteria
Cell wallsMade of peptoglycenCell walls are made of different matter.
Cell MembraneIs composed of a lipid bilayerIs composed of a lipid monolayer
HabitatHarsh environment such as hot springsFound in most living creatures and milder environments.
EnergyProduces more standard energyProduces less standard energy.