Mitosis vs Meiosis – Difference and Comparison

What is Mitosis?

Mitosis is a cell division where a single parent cell divides into two genetically identical daughter cells.

The first stage where a cell develops copies of its DNA and prepares to divide into two new cells is called interphase. The nucleus separates into two equal portions known as daughter nuclei.

The chromosomes condense and thicken in prophase. The mitotic spindle is a structure that helps in chromosomal separation.  It also begins to develop. They organize into sister chromatid pairs that are identical copies of each other.

It is the phase of mitosis where the chromosomes align at the cell’s equator and bind to spindle fibers in metaphase.

The nucleus chromosomes pull apart to form opposite ends of the cell and split in anaphase. The method is critical for appropriate chromosomal segregation during cell division.

Cytokinesis happens at the telophase. The mode of reproduction is asexual reproduction.

What is Meiosis?

Meiosis is a cell division in sexually reproducing organisms to produce gametes.

The chromosomes are reduced by half. It results in four haploid cells from a diploid cell in interphase. The chromosomes duplicate or replicate and are not visible at this time.

Homologous chromosomes appear in pairs, each with two sister chromatids in prophase. The tetrad is generated by the pairing of homologous chromosomes.

The chromosomes are still intact and organized into pairs of homologs (bivalents) in metaphase. Cells would not be able to divide or function normally if they were not properly aligned on the metaphase plate.

Crossover occurs when homologous chromosomes exchange portions of DNA in anaphase. Cytokinesis happens in both telophase I and telophase II.

The mode of reproduction is sexual reproduction.

Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Mitosis and meiosis are two critical steps in the cell’s life cycle. Both of these processes are involved in DNA replication and the formation of new cells.

There are some significant distinctions between mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is in charge of the formation of new somatic cells, whereas meiosis is in charge of the formation of new gametes.

Comparison Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Parameter of ComparisonMitosisMeiosis  
DefinitionMitosis is the process by which cells divide. It results in the production of two identical daughter cells.Meiosis is a two-step cell division process that produces four genetically different daughter cells from a single parent cell.
Where does it happen?It happens in all species except for viruses.It is only found in animals, plants, and fungi.
Cells it produces inIt generates somatic cells.It produces germ or sex cells
Crossing over or recombinationIt is not found in the prophase.It is found in the prophase.
GeneticsSister chromatids are genetically unique cells from which they were produced.The sister chromatids are genetically unique both from one another and from the parent cell.
A number of cells createThere are two daughter cells.There are four daughter cells.
Prophase length  It is short.It is longer.
Metaphase  Single chromosomes line up on the cell’s equator at metaphase.  At metaphase I, chromosomal pairs align on the cell’s equator.
Anaphase  Sister chromatids travel to distinct ends of the cell at anaphase.  Sister chromatids travel to the same cell pole at anaphase I. Sister chromatids are split to oppose the cell’s ends at anaphase II.
Discovered byMitosis was discovered in 1838 by German biologist Matthias Jakob Schleiden.Meiosis was discovered by German biologist Oscar Hertwig.