DNA vs RNA – Difference and Comparison

What is DNA?

DNA is the genetic code that contains instructions for building and maintaining an organism. It is passed down from parent to offspring. It encodes the organism’s particular traits.

DNA is located in cells’ nuclei. It is made up of two chain-like structures known as “strands.” The strands form a double helix by coiling around each other.

The information is accessible for developing and maintaining an organism. It is determined by the order, or sequence, of the bases on the DNA strands.

DNA is found in all living cells and serves as the foundation for inheritance. DNA’s primary job is to store information.

What is RNA?

RNA is a molecule that plays several key roles within cells. It transports the genetic information of a gene from the nucleus to the ribosomes.

It is also important in gene expression control. It can be found in various forms throughout the cell.

RNA is a type of molecule that is essential for the proper functioning of cells. It is similar to DNA, but its structure is much simpler. RNA is responsible for carrying out the instructions of DNA. It does this by translating the genetic code into proteins.

RNA is found in all living cells and plays a vital role in cell function.

Difference Between DNA and RNA

The most prominent difference between DNA and RNA is that DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded.

This indicates that DNA can hold more data than RNA. RNA is volatile and readily degrades. DNA is considerably more permanent. Finally, DNA is found in cells’ nuclei, whereas RNA is present in the cytoplasm.

Comparison between DNA and RNA

Parameter of comparisonDNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid)RNA (Ribonucleic acid)
DefinitionDNA is the genetic information carrier in all living beings.RNA is a kind of molecule that aids in the production of proteins and performs other vital tasks in the cell.
LocationThey are located in the nucleus of a cell as well as the mitochondria, which are referred to as the “powerhouses of the cell.”They are located in cells’ ribosomes, cytoplasm, and nucleus.
Sugar portionThe sugar in DNA is 2-deoxyribose, and the phosphate groups create the molecule’s backbone. The bases connected to the sugar-phosphate backbone, are what distinguish DNA.It has a nitrogenous base and a sugar-phosphate backbone. RNA’s sugar component is critical to its structure and function.
FunctionDNA’s role is to provide instructions for an organism’s development and function.RNA’s role is to provide gene coding, decoding, regulation, and expression. RNA is contained in all cells and is required for
Nitrogenous Bases and PairingAdenine (A), thymine (T), cytosine (C), and guanine are the four nitrogenous bases that make up DNA (G). These nucleotides join together to create the rungs of the DNA ladder, A with T and C with G.Adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G), and uracil are the four nitrogenous bases found in RNA (U). These four bases form the double helix shape of RNA by hydrogen bonding with one another.
PropagationDNA can duplicate itself; it is self-replicating.When a cell needs to produce a protein, it synthesizes RNA from DNA. RNA does not reproduce on its own but is created when it is required.


  1. https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/abs/10.1089/dna.1985.4.165
  2. https://rnajournal.cshlp.org/content/10/3/335.short