Difference Between Acid and Base

What is Acid?

When existing in an aqueous phase, an acid is a substance or chemical with a pH just under 7.0. Whatever mixture in which liquid serves as a solvent is referred to as an aqueous phase. Compounds that transfer Hydrogen (h+) to some other standard compound as just a base are referred to as acids.

When an acid is present, it raises the ionic strength, according to the Arrhenius Principle.
Acids are compounds that transfer protons according to the Bronsted-Lowry Theory.
Lewis acids are ions that absorb two electrons (electron pair absorber – partial derivatives) and have an unoccupied octet.

Nitric acid (HNO3), hydrochloric acid (HCl), sulfuric (H2SO4),  are examples of strong acids. AlCl3 and BF3 are anhydrous aluminum chloride and boron trifluoride respectively. Weak acids in condensed form, including such acetic (CH3COOH), formic acid (CH2O2). For instance, solutions of ZnCl2 have a particular reactivity (zinc chloride). Superacids are very powerful acids.

Acids are viscous when mixed with water. These have a stinging sensation, change colors of blue litmus to red, and have a sour flavor.
Whenever Phenolphthalein is acid was added, it reacts with bases to neutralize their characteristics, including passing an electric current and reacting with metal catalysts to release H (hydrogen) and stay colorless.

What is Base?

Whenever existing in an aqueous phase, a basic (oxidizing agent) is a chemical or substance with a pH value greater than 7.0. Acids are the molecular polar opposite of bases. In science, to be precise. These chemicals produce hydroxide (OH) ions in an aqueous phase.

A base, according to the Arrhenius Principle, is a substance that when absorbed in water raises the proportion of hydroxide ions (OH–). Lewis bases, on either hand, are compounds that receive proton on donors who contribute an electron pair (electron-pair giver – a nucleophile) and have a single electron pair.

The following are the several types of bases:

  1. Caustics, including such hydroxide solution (NaOH) and potassium hydroxide (KOH), are alkalis (potassium hydroxide).
  2. Weak bases are concentrated in a concentrated solution, such as NH3 (ammonia).
  3. Alkali ions in the elemental state (such as elemental sodium) and alkaline and alkaline earth metal metals hydrides, such as NaH (sodium hydride), can act as a stronger hydrate and bases to make caustics.
  4. Metal amides, alkoxides (including such NaNH2 – sodium amide), C4H9Li (butyllithium), and is an organotin base, are examples of superbases.

Bases, except ammonia, have a harsh taste when dispersed in water. It can change the color of the red test to blue and is slick to the touch. Whenever Phenolphthalein is introduced to a solution, it can react chemically to neutralize its particular characteristics and turn pink.

Difference Between Acid and Base

  1. The major difference between a base and an acid is that the base formulates hydroxide ions whereas an acid after dissolution in water formulates hydrogen ions.
  2. Bases taste bitter, whereas acids are sour.
  3. The pH level is above 7 in the case of the base and below 7 in the case of acid.
  4. When tested with phenolphthalein bases turn pink whereas the acid remains colorless.
  5. The strength depends on hydroxide ions in the case of the base whereas on hydrogen ions in the case of the acid.
  6. Soaps and Detergents belong to a base and sulphuric acid belongs to an acid.

Comparison Between Acid and Base

Parameters of ComparisonAcidsBase
Defineformulates hydrogen ions(H+)
after water dissolution.
formulates hydroxide ions
after after dissolution
pH levelbelow 7above 7
strengthdepends on Hydrogen ionsdepends on hydroxide ions
salt formationafter reacting with basesafter reacting with salts
litmus paperred from blueblue from red
phenolphthaleincolorlesspink color
methyl orangeyellow to dark redunchanged
used incarbonated drinks, batteriesdetergents, soaps
instancessulphuric acid, carbonic acidcalcium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide


  1. https://www.science.org/doi/abs/10.1126/science.1085762
  2. https://www.science.org/doi/pdf/10.1126/science.151.3707.172
  3. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0927775795031373