5 Dextrose vs Dextrose Saline – Difference and Comparison

What is 5 Dextrose?

5 Dextrose is a mixture of dextrose and water. It is an intravenous sugar solution composed of 5 grams of a dextrorotatory form of glucose dissolved in 100 grams of water. It is isotonic initially, but when it reaches the blood vessel, it turns hypotonic as dextrose gets utilized by the body entering the cells. The rest water enters cells causing cellular swelling and is not preferable post-surgery.

It is a solvent in water, and its aqueous solution movement helps in the movement of water coming out from the cell which is balanced by the movement of water into the cell thus forming an isotonic solution. It can be used for the following purposes:

  1. Cellular dehydration- The ability to pierce into cells makes it very effective in terms of cellular dehydration.
  2. Providing Calories- Very effective in providing calories when the subject can’t intake any food or energy.
  3. Ketosis Reaction- It’s very reactive when it gets into the blood vessels and process ketosis, which prevents starvation.

5 Dextrose is also not suitable for the following purposes:

  1. When undergoing neurosurgery
  2. In case of Acute Ischemic Stroke
  3. In case of water intoxication
  4. In case of Hypovolemic shock    

What is Dextrose Saline?

Dextrose saline is a mixture of 5 percent dextrorotatory form of glucose, Sodium Chloride, and water. It contains Sodium and Chloride ions and the quantity varies on usage. It is a sterile saline solution that enters the body’s veins also known as intravenous administration. It is also called parental fluid because helps in electrolyte nourishment after entering the body through veins.  They exhibit the highest pressure to pass through semi-permeable membranes and are hypertonic.

Dextrose saline helps in electrolyte nourishment of the body so it is helpful in the usage of post-surgery in replacing water losses in conjunction with salt retaining fluid. The Sodium Chloride that is present here is combined together in the form of Na+ ions and Cl ions.

Dextrose saline can be used for Diabetic patients, patients with breathing problems have a high percentage of sodium chloride so can be used in pregnant women post-surgery that does helps in cellular recovery, and prevents dehydration. It comes with no side effects but rarely skin rashes, red spots or itchy skin can be seen.

Difference Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline

  1. 5 Dextrose and Dextrose saline is different and irrelevant from one other hence is used in very different situations. 5 Dextrose being hypotonic is water soluble and isotonic in bottle. It is a type of glucose that goes into the vein directly and is available in different strengths. While Dextrose saline is a mixture of 5 percent dextrorotatory form of glucose, Sodium Chloride and water. The quantity of Sodium chloride varies according to the usage.
  2. 5 Dextrose is generally isotonic but when enters into the vein it becomes hypotonic thus causing cell swelling. Dextrose saline on the other hand is hypertonic in nature and thus helps in cell dehydration and post-surgery.
  3. The nature of 5 Dextrose is not parental but Dextrose Saline is parental in nature because of helping in electrolyte nourishment.
  4. The 5 Dextrose is soluble in water and have aqueous solution movement and can penetrate easily. The Dextrose saline exhibits high pressure to pass through semi-permeable membrane
  5. The primary use of 5 dextrose is to maintain the water balance in the body when eating is not an option while Dextrose saline can be used to pregnant women after surgery for recovery.

Comparison Between 5 Dextrose and Dextrose Saline

Parameters of Comparison5 DextroseDextrose Saline
CompositionComposed of 5gms of a dextrorotatory form of glucose and waterComposed of a dextrorotatory form of glucose, Sodium Chloride, and Water
NatureIsotonic in the bottle but Hypotonic when in bodyHypertonic in nature
Type of FluidNot Parental FluidParental Fluid
MovementThe solvent is water, have aqueous solution movementExhibits highest pressure to pass through a semi-permeable membrane
UsesMaintaining water balance when eating is not an optionReplace Water losses post-surgery in conjunction with salt retaining fluid i.e. saline

References

  1. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673682922279
  2. https://journals.lww.com/greenjournal/fulltext/2013/02000/Dextrose_Saline_Compared_With_Normal_Saline.13.aspx