Table of Contents
What are Organic Compounds?
The chemical compounds which consist of carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon bonds are called organic compounds. In organic compounds, catenation occurs, bonding atoms of the same elements into a series and forming a chain.
The chain forms may be open or closed depending on the bonding of elements. Millions of organic compounds exist in the world. We study organic compounds in organic chemistry. We study in detail the properties, synthesis, and reactions.
The large class of chemical compounds consists of one or more carbon atoms that are covalently linked to atoms of other elements, which most commonly include hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, etc.
However, a few chemical compounds containing carbon atoms that are not classified as organic chemicals, including carbides, carbonate, cyanides, etc., are called inorganic compounds. Thus, only small organic substances make up the earth’s crust.
They are the basics of life, and mainly life exists on these organic chemicals as carbohydrates, proteins, and primarily vitamins are organic. All these compounds are essential for humans, animals, and plants. Organic compounds are insoluble in water.
All living things convert inorganic compounds to organic compounds through different processes. Examples of organic compounds are carbohydrates, fats, proteins, nucleic acids, etc.
However, the earth’s crust comprises inorganic compounds, primarily as chemicals. Few simple carbon compounds lack carbon-hydrogen bonds and are called inorganic compounds.
Inorganic compounds are made up of two or more chemical elements other than carbon atoms which are combined in almost definite proportions with each other by ionic bonding.
Most inorganic compounds are parts of the organic system, including organisms; it never means they are unnecessary chemicals for organisms. Inorganic compounds are found as minerals or metal bond compounds.
Furthermore, inorganic compounds are made of metal and metal ions and can conduct electricity. There are ionic or covalent bonds present in most inorganic compounds. Most inorganic compounds are water soluble due to ionic bonding.
The inorganic compound forms crystals due to their bonding nature. Inorganic compounds are non-combustible. Inorganic compounds are colorful due to the presence of d-block elements.
Difference Between Organic and Inorganic Compounds
The difference between organic and inorganic chemicals is the presence of carbon atoms. Organic compounds are composed of large chains of carbon atoms, while inorganic chemicals are made from two or more elements except for carbon atoms.
Organic chemicals cannot be prepared in the laboratory, unlike inorganic compounds, which can be prepared in the laboratory.
Mostly organic compounds are colorless, while inorganic compounds are colorful.
Organic compounds are insoluble in water and are hydrophobic. However, organic compounds are soluble in nonpolar solvents. Inorganic compounds are insoluble in nonpolar solvents while soluble in water.
Organic compounds are volatile in nature due weak bonding, while inorganic compounds are usually non-volatile due to strong bond present.
Comparison Between Organic and Inorganic Compounds
|Parameters of Comparison||Organic Compounds||Inorganic Compounds|
|Composition||Organic compounds are mainly composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, etc.||They lack carbon atoms in their composition,|
|Nature of compounds||The bond is covalent in organic molecules.||Inorganic compounds contain ionic, covalent, or electrovalent bonds.|
|Boiling and melting points||Low||High|
|Electricity conduction||Nonconductors||Good conductors.|
- ^Seager, Spencer L.; Slabaugh, Michael R. (2004). Chemistry for Today: General, Organic, and Biochemistry. Thomson Brooks/Cole. p. 342. ISBN 9780534399696. OCLC 155910842.
- ^ Smith, Cory. “Petrochemicals”. American Fuel & Petrochemical Manufacturers. Archived from the original on 11 September 2021. Retrieved 18 December 2016.