Active vs Passive Immunity – Difference and Comparison

What is Active Immunity?

“Active immunity” refers to immunity that develops in response to infection with a disease. Immunity does not develop immediately after exposure to a virus, as many believe, and active immunity may take many days or weeks to build following the first interaction.

A type of white blood cell known as B cells is activated when the body is exposed to an unknown disease agent. These B cells create antibodies that destroy or neutralize the pathogen. Immunity to a particular disease agent is provided by an antibody specific to the disease in question, and the immune system produces antibodies.

Furthermore, the protection it gives is quite long-lasting, as previously said. Protective reactions take longer to develop because of lag time. Recurrence of the illness or revaccination, on the other hand, can bring it back to life.

Consequently, it could take many days or weeks for symptoms to appear following the initial exposure. However, once it has developed, its protection can persist for a very long time. Furthermore, it can manifest itself in one of two ways: either organically or due to immunization. Immunity develops due to the body’s production of antibodies to disease. Because of this, our bodies immune systems are better able to identify and combat disease.

What is Passive Immunity?

Antibodies are produced in the absence of immune cells to achieve passive immunity. Furthermore, there are no antibodies against the virus because it spreads directly, and it is also impossible to generate memory immune cells.

It must be administered frequently to provide ongoing protection. After that, it is beneficial in treating an immune deficiency, immunodeficiency, and severe combined immunodeficiency.

Besides that, it is a very effective method of imparting resistance without waiting to develop an active immune response. No prior exposure to a disease agent is required for this method.

In the case of receiving antibodies from outside sources, it is considered a type of immunity that is conferred upon the recipient. It provides short-term protection but not the long-term security that active immunity offers.

In various ways, one can obtain passive immunity that will help them save their lives. Antibodies are not changed as frequently as they would be if the immune system were functioning normally and regularly; therefore, passive immunity is only effective for a limited period. It is possible to acquire passive immunity through a variety of means, including the transfer of maternal antibodies occurs through the placenta and circulatory system throughout pregnancy and breast milk following childbirth.

Difference Between Active and Passive Immunity

  1. Activated immunity provides long-term protection for your body, while passive immunity provides short-term protection.
  2. Although active immunity responds more quickly than passive immunity, the response time of functional immunity is significantly slower.
  3. Active immunity can be acquired through exposure to pathogens in the natural environment or vaccines in the laboratory environment. In both natural and artificial ways, antibodies can provide passive immunity.
  4. Humoral and cell-mediated immunity is active immunity, whereas passive immunity is the opposite of active immunity obtained via pre-made antibodies.
  5. Active immunity is not recommended for immunocompromised or immunodeficient persons; however, passive immunity is recommended.
  6. It is more common for active immunity to produce a more rapid and potent secondary reaction. In contrast, passive immunity does not have a secondary response and must be re-administered.
  7. Antigen-presenting cells, B and T cells, and other components of active immunity are all present. The absence of immunological cells is a characteristic of passive immunity.
  8. Unlike passive immunity, which does not require any time to develop, active immunity requires some time.
  9. There are rarely any negative effects associated with active immunity. Some adverse effects or reactions to passive immunity may occur.

Comparison Between Active and Passive Immunity

Parameters of ComparisonActive ImmunityPassive Immunity
Immunological Memory Researchers have discovered immunological memory.No immunological memory can be found in this organism.
Antibodies Produced by the human bodyAn external agent brought it about.
Natural Acquirement InfectionsBreast milk is delivered to the baby through the placenta.
Artificial Acquirement VaccinationsInjections are used to administer antibodies to patients.
Immunity Type Virus-mediated and cell-mediatedImmunity is obtained through the use of pre-made antibodies.
Suitability It is not recommended for persons who are immunocompromised.Immunocompromised individuals can use it.
Secondary Response A secondary response that is both faster and stronger.There is no secondary response.